12th Grade English Uncategorized

12th Grade English Essay 20(Term paper)


Date: June 8, 2022-July 15, 2022. Corrected: July 22, 2022.

Australia Term Paper Contents

Thesis: All about Australia’s history from the time the continent was founded to the modern era. Geography, nature, and animals will be included. The people who explored the land (especially James Cook) and Australia’s government is also included. Aboriginals are mentioned.

  1. Australia
  2. Geography/Nature.
  3. Areas of Australia.
  4. Environmental conditions
  • Animals
  1. History
  2. Settlers
  3. Aboriginals.
  4. Europeans.
  • Captain James Cook (bibliography).
  • After Captain Cook’s history
  1. 1800s-1900s.
  2. 1900s–2000s.
  3. Government.
  4. Flag meaning
  1. Conclusion
  2. Modern times/Final thoughts
  1. Australia. 
  2. Geography/Nature.
  3. Areas of Australia.

 Australia is a continent in the Southern Hemisphere. This is a colony that was founded by the British before the Dutch. It is surrounded by Oceania, which contains the land of Australia, New Zealand and many Pacific islands. The Indian and Pacific Oceans surround Australia. Queensland capital is Brisbane; New South Wales is Canberra; Victoria is Melbourne; the Northern Territory is Darwin; South Australia is Adelaide; Tasmania is Hobart; and Western Australia is Perth. Each land was explored in different timelines.

  • Environmental conditions.

Australia has many environments. There are rainforests, deserts, tropical, coastal, and temperate zones. Tropical weather is in the north. The south-east of Australia is very fertile. The East and much of the South are temperate. The rest of Australia is a desert, and depending on the areas of Australia, there are a lot of coastal environments. Australia has interesting places to visit. Ayers Rock is a big red sandstone rock that is in the Central Australian Desert in the Northern Territory. It is a place where the aboriginals visit, and it is over 1,000 feet tall. In Queensland, the largest peninsula is Cape York. It is filled with tropical rainforests, mangroves, swamps, mountains, grasslands, and rivers. It is the biggest peninsula found in Australia. The highest point in Australia between New South Wales and the Victoria region is Mount Kosciuszko. It is over 7,000 feet tall. The lowest point in South Australia is Lake Eyre, which is -49 feet below sea level. The largest barrier reef is Australia’s Great Barrier Reef, which is 1,600 long.

  • Animals

Kangaroos are marsupials. They have pouches to carry their young and have long tails and hind feet, which enables them to have the perfect balance. They are found all over Australia. Koalas are small herbivores that live in trees and get their energy by sleeping. Koalas are found in Queensland, Victoria, South Australia, and New South Wales. Dingos are like wolves and dogs, but they are wild. They are agile and have flexible joints. They can be found in Australia’s wild lands. Platypus have a bill like a duck, a tail like a beaver, and feet like otters. Their hind feet have spurs that give out venom to prey. They live in the rivers. A Kookaburra is a bird that eats snakes, mice, and insects. They live everywhere except near water. Wombats are smaller marsupials who carry their young in their pouches in the back and live in South Eastern Australia. Quokkas are small animals that are found on the coasts of western Australia. They are herbivores. Bandicoots are omnivorous marsupials that are nocturnal and considered to be pests. An emu is a big bird that is found all over Australia. It has a long neck and legs. They can run fast, but cannot fly. Their diet comprises insects and plants, but they sometimes avoid eating for weeks. A sugar glider is a small possum that resembles a flying squirrel. They are found in Eastern Australia and have special membranes that enable them to glide safely from tree to tree. Echidnas are small mammals that have fur and sharp spines, or quills. They eat termites and ants. Echidnas can dig with their sharp claws in the dirt and can live everywhere from intense heat to severe cold. A wallaby is like a kangaroo but smaller. They eat plants and grass and live in areas surrounding rocks and bushes. The Tasmanian Devil is found in Tasmania. They have horrible growls and screams. They have sharp teeth and are carnivorous. They eat wombats and wallabies. The Thorny Dragon is a lizard that has sharp thorns all over its body. They can camouflage in the desert, which is where they live. The Cassowary is another flightless bird found in Australia. They eat small invertebrates and fruits. Last, I will talk about the Box Jellyfish. They look like boxes swimming in the ocean and have a powerful sting that can kill humans. They are found near Western Australia and the Northern Territory.

  1. History.
  2. Settlers
  3. Aboriginals.

The first people that settled in Australia were the Aboriginals. Originally, they came from South East Asia and inhabited the country between 40 and 60 thousand years ago. They are scattered all over Australia and its islands. As a tribe, they learned to survive in the hot, dry, and different temperatures. There are high tides near the coasts. They learned to find food and water near bushes and established trading routes with other aboriginal tribes. This was before the Europeans came to Australia. The Dutch were actually the first to explore Australia in the 17th century, but they did not do too much. In the 18th century, the British were the ones involved. Since they were new to Australia, they had to learn to adapt and learn about Australia’s natural history. The British had to survive smallpox while they were there, and it also killed many Aboriginals. The languages that they learned were Pama-Nayungan (south) and non-Pama-Nayungan (north). Despite the different dialects, certain Aboriginals didn’t get along. A mythical philosophy called Dreamtime was common among the tribes. It occurs when an elderly person tells stories about their ancestors and family history. Sometimes the tribes paint on people’s bodies and sing and dance. They made rock art and held many festivals.

The tribes talk about religion, marriage, kinship, and alliances. They hold these kinds of social events 2 or 3 times a year. Because food is sometimes scarce, they have to travel far in order to get food. The males were the ones in charge of everything in the tribes, including homes, rituals, totems, traditions, and more. The Aboriginals also have certain rules that have to be obeyed:

They settled a girl’s marriage before she reached puberty and decided her husband should be older than her.

  1. An arrangement of marriages included betrothal, elopement, and the obligatory marriage of a widow to her husband’s brother. Also, the capturing of women during fights or the exchange of sisters and brothers.
  2. A man who married more than one wife. The number varies differently in tribes.
  3. Their traditions prevented men from marrying any woman who had become a mother-in-law to someone.
  4. The relations of kinship, like mothers, fathers, uncles, and aunts, were very respectable.
  5. The communities followed an initiation and a ritual after reaching adulthood. This happened as a symbol of achieving a new life, and all boys had to follow it.
  6. Circumcision, scarring, hair removal, piercings, and fire-playing were common rituals.

 Besides Dreamtime, there is also a totemic system. It is where humans and nature are interlinked into a corporation. They use animals, plants, and minerals for the totems. The animal was used to prevent people from eating them. They considered plants and humans being the same flesh and blood. There were small-to-large hunter gatherings. Men, women, and children arranged them, but the men were always in charge. The tribes had different beliefs, rules, dances, songs, and more. However, an instrument invented by the tribes is called a didgeridoo. You blow into it and it makes sounds. They also clapped sticks. Both the didgeridoo and the clapping of sticks were famous in the North. In the south of Australia, the tribes pound sticks and boomerangs on the ground. Last, the tribes had architecture. They used nature to not only do art but for buildings and homes. Examples include: clay; shells; bones; bamboo; stones; and more. The aboriginals still practice their culture today, but have also adapted to the European lifestyle. Most of them live in Western Australia.

  • Europeans.

The first Europeans to travel to Australia were the Dutch. In 1606, Willem Janszoon explored the western coast of the Cape York Peninsula. In 1616, another Dutch sailor, Dirt Hartog, saw several islands near Australia. In 1642, Abel Tasman explored a small part of Australia, Van Diemen’s Land (Tasmania). In 1688, William Dampier landed in Western Australia. After the Dutch, the English explored the land and did more than the Dutch had done. In 1770, Captain James Cook explored the eastern coast of Australia. He landed in Botany Bay and charted the land. He claimed this land for Britain.

 Later, a man named Arthur Philip sails and lands in Australia. He found that Botany Bay was unsuitable, so he moved and sailed to a place where he colonized Sydney. This was the first European settlement at the time. The area of New South Wales was an official place. The first religious services were performed there by the Reverend Richard Johnson. Philip was the governor of New South Wales. Many ships later landed, and more people inhabited the land. The people were transported as convicts to the colony. Before the British were intrigued with Australia, they had a colony in the United States of America.

 However, the colony gained independence from the British. After they lost, they let America set up their country. The convicts go to Australia, Africa, and Asia. There were lots of wildfires, and some were natural or arson. So several places, like churches and jails, were burnt down. The convicts were still prisoners, and any who escaped were considered bushrangers. The exploration of the land of Australia continues.

  • Captain James Cook (bibliography).

In 1728, a famous navigator, captain, and sailor was born in Yorkshire, England. His name was James Cook. He grew up on a farm and attended school. At the age of 17, he was an apprentice to a shopkeeper. He did this for a year and a half, and then worked as an apprentice for another person for 3 years. His name was John Walker, who was a Quaker and a coal shipper. Cook did this for two years. In 1755, Walker offered him a position for the trade, but Cook decided to do something else. He went on a ship called the H.M.S. Eagle. He sailed on the channel of England for two years, then went on another ship, the Pembroke, and sailed to North America. He took part in the siege of Louisburg and surveyed the St. Lawrence River. Then he surveyed Nova Scotia and Newfoundland. He returned to England, and in 1762, he married Elizabeth Batts. Then he returned to Newfoundland and got command of a ship, the Grenville. Cook was a good sailor, and he was rewarded with a ship, Endeavor, and he set sail from Plymouth in 1768. They sailed towards the Southern Hemisphere. He passed by Cape Horn, South Africa. He made observations of different islands; he charted them and saw different animal species. However, he had to prove that the southern continent, namely Australia and New Zealand, was a real place. Before he went to Australia, he charted New Zealand, which is east of Australia. Then he sailed and landed in Eastern Australia in 1770. He charted and explored different bays and animals found in Australia. One day, as he sailed, his ship crashed into the Great Barrier Reef. The crew did what they could to get their resources off the ship. For a month and a half, they had no ship. He took over Eastern Australia. He sailed to Batavia, which is near Papua New Guinea. He didn’t go back to England until 1771. Even though he had charted 5,000 miles, people ignored Cook’s reports of the land. In 1772–1775, he went on a second voyage to Australia. Finally, people started to pay attention. He went on the expedition to follow Tobias Furneaux, who was captain of the Adventure. Cook was captain of the ship, Resolution. In 1773, both ships parted because of fog. Cook went to Van Diemen’s Land (Tasmania). Then, Cook’s last voyage to Australia was in 1777. He visited Adventure Bay, New Zealand, and Tahiti. He explored the Pacific coastal islands. He went to the Sandwich Islands (part of Hawaii) in 1778 and was killed there in 1779. Cook was a fantastic explorer, and his colonization helped Britain expand its empire. He had many successes and a few unsuccessful missions, his men followed his orders. Cook knew good hygiene and didn’t catch scurvy which is a lack of Vitamin C. His crew may have ignored that but he did the right thing.

  • After Captain Cook’s history
  • 1800’s-1900’s.

During the 1800’s, many convicts were sent to Australia. However, in 1840 the convict transportation ended. There were over 160,000 convicts. They were sent into Queensland, New South Wales, Van Diemen’s Land (later renamed Tasmania), and Western Australia. There were several famous bushrangers (convicts) such as Ned Kelly, Martin Cash, William Buckley, Michael Howe and many others. Many escaped and others were caught or on the run. Despite Australia being a convict country, it had aboriginals and many of them got wiped out because they would fight against the European settlers. As the years passed, many governors took over different states of Australia. As a British colony, Australia had to follow British policies in farming, trading, seal hunting, and fishing. The first major items were exported and imported in 1815. Many buildings, bridges, railroads, and more were built by labor. Sheep were transported and used for wool. It expanded the textile industry for Australia. During the 1850’s, several colonies, including New South Wales, South Australia, Tasmania, and Victoria, ran on self-government. However, Western Australia remains in the old system. Democratic political parties developed. In the 1850’s, gold was found in Australia. This led to people being richer and more people working and living in the colony. Next to sheep being a popular trade, gold ended up being the new trading material. However, most of the gold was transferred to Britain. The colony started expanding agriculture and transportation. More machines were made, and it helped the trading process. There is also a pastoral industry that involves cattle breeding. The farmers had to increase the cattle industry in order to have more cattle for the future and for survival. As the expansion of Australia continued, there was a movement of farmers wanting land for themselves. The government could not do anything but make land reform laws. This ended the dispute against the government. An economic boom happened during the 1870’s and 1880’s, but this ended in the 1890’s. This brought depression to Australia.

  • 1900’s-2000’s

In 1901, the Commonwealth of Australia became official. The British parliament passed it along with Australian voters. More immigrants came to the country, and the depression was low. A boom started again. Many factories and industries rose in Australia, even steel. When World War I started, Australia joined with Britain to fight in the war. Approximately 400,000 Australian volunteers fought in the war, and 60,000 died and 200,000 were injured. They took part in the army, navy, and airforce. The soldiers eliminated the Germans in the South Pacific and took part in the Middle East. The Australian economy was strong, but not during the war. As the boom took place again, there was a bust. There was the Great Depression which took place in the United States and in many other countries. When World War II started, Australia joined the war. They fought against the Japanese in the Pacific islands. Women in Australia also joined the army and fought. The total was 71,000 injured, 29,000 died, 2,500 M.I.A., 30,000 were prisoners, and 8,000 died as prisoners. After the war, Australia chose to be closer to the United States than Britain in foreign policy.

 In 1950–53, Australia went to fight in the Korean War to help the United Nations. In 1951, a treaty (ANZUS) was created between Australia, New Zealand, and the United States. It was for mutual defense. In 1954, Australia founded the Southeast Asian Treaty Organization (SEATO), which is similar to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). In 1965-1971, the Vietnam War started, and Australia sent their troops to help the United States fight the war. During these war eras, Australia had mainly white Europeans immigrating into Australia. They did not want Asians. However, in 1965, that changed. They let Asians into Australia. In 1966, the currency Australia Dollar, (AUD) becomes official. The banknotes in Australia are: $5, $10, $20, $50, $100. For coins its 5 cents, 10 cents, 20 cents, 50 cents, $1 and $2 coins. In 1990, Australia used their naval forces to help the United States fight against Iraq because Iraq invaded Kuwait. After 9/11, Australia used the (ANZUS) treaty and led the troops to Afghanistan. In 2003, it sent troops to participate in Operation Iraqi Freedom. In 2005, Australia and the United States made a bilateral trade agreement, but Australia also traded with China and made a free trade agreement.

  • Government.

Australia, also known as the Commonwealth of Australia, follows the British and North American government systems. Australia has a parliament and a democracy. The Governor General, is appointed by the King or Queen of Britain and follows the advice of the Prime Minister. This is the highest power there is in Australia. The Governor General has multiple tasks. They are in charge of military forces, give assent to laws passed in Parliament, appoint ambassadors, commissioners, judges, and ministers; issue writs for elections; give out Australian honor awards; open parliament and welcome the visiting heads of the states. The Governor General will listen to the advice of the Prime Minister but will sometimes ignore it. They can dismiss a prime minister only if he disobeys the laws or if he doesn’t dismiss the House of Representatives against the advice of the Prime Minister. The Federal Government in Australia covers the three arms of government: legislative, judicial, and executive:

Legislature: The federal legislature is composed of the House of Representatives and the Senate. Each state and territory elects one member to the House of Representatives, and 12 members from the states and two from the territories are elected to the Senate. The legislature passes legislation, debates on matters concerning public policy, and approves or disapproves the government’s proposals on taxation and expenditure.

The Judiciary: The High Court and Federal Courts make up the federal judicature. The High Court is mandated to interpret the Constitution, resolve legal disputes between the House of Representatives and Senate and listen to appeals from lower courts.

Executive: Executive power is exercised by the Prime Minister and the Cabinet. The Prime Minister leads the party with the majority of members in the government. The Prime Minister appoints ministers, who take care of their assigned departments. The Executive is in charge of policy making.

The State Government is ruled by the six states of Australia. All the states have their own constitution. The state governments take control of their own matters concerning their own states and not the federal government. The Territory Government rules in the territories of Australia. Not all, but some places in Australia have a limited right to self-government. Others are governed by Commonwealth law. Local governments work within the state and territory governments. They look over management, community safety and services, town planning, and maintenance.

  • Flag Meaning

The official flag was born in 1901. It is a dark blue flag. In the top left corner, the Union Jack flag is there. The Union Jack is the official flag used for the United Kingdom, also known as Britain. The flag of St. George’s is white and has a red cross. This is used in England. The flag of St. Andrew is blue and has a white cross. This is used for Scotland. The flag of St. Patrick is white and has a red cross. This is used for Ireland. This forms the Union Jack. Underneath the Union Jack, a big star represents the Commonwealth of Australia. It denotes the 6 states and 7 territories of Australia. The five stars on the right of the flag are for the Southern Cross. This symbolizes the locations in Australia and shows the Aboriginal heritage.

  1. Conclusion
  2. Modern times/Final thoughts

Today, Australia is a country full of many things. It is filled with rich history, people, nature, and animals. The country evolved from nothing to a successful country. Australia grew its population over time. It runs by itself but is involved in foreign treaties with different countries. It may have a parliament, but the states also have their own constitutions granting their own freedom. During the great wars, Australia became involved with foreign activity because of Britain. Many tourists visit Australia all year round. I think that Australia is a great country because of its nature and animals. If I was able to, I would visit there and all of their states.

Bibliography sources:


Other sources:

12th Grade English Uncategorized

12th Grade English Essay 19

Why is Call of Duty Black Ops Cold War better than Call of Duty Vanguard?

In this essay I will be arguing about two different types of Call of Duty games: Black Ops: Cold War and Vanguard. These games were made by Activision. I will explain which game is better to play. The first game I’ll discuss is Black Ops: Cold War. This game was released in 2020. The era this game was set in was during the 1980’s. The Cold War was a war between the United States and Soviet Union. There are two factions: NATO and the Warsaw Pact. The United States is part of NATO and Soviet Union is part of the Warsaw Pact. Many different countries chose to join NATO or the Warsaw Pact. The second game I’ll discuss is Vanguard. This game was released in 2021. The era in which this game is set was during World War II. Before the Cold War started, there was a world war between many countries. The two factions are the Allies and the Axis. The countries in the Allied group are the United States, Soviet Union, and the United Kingdom. The countries in the Axis group are Germany, Italy, and Japan.

The first game mode I want to talk about with Black Ops: Cold War and Vanguard is Campaign mode. This mode is a story mode for both games. It has a background of Cold War and Vanguard history. I prefer the Black Ops Cold War campaign over the Vanguard campaign. The reason for this is that I love the era it was set in. The game also had better characters and awesome catch phrases. The locations I went to were amazing because I visited some cities and most of the places had less war and more towns. However, the ending of the game was surprising. You actually had a few different types of endings. You had a good ending, a bad ending, and a bad alternate ending. It wasn’t a cheesy ending to this game.

I will discuss Vanguards’ campaign mode. I don’t like the era it was set in because World War II games do not interest me. The story was not as good as The Cold War, but it could have been better. Some of the characters that were used were not bad, but they weren’t the best. The characters had some good catchphrases. The locations I went to in Vanguard are not good because they are too realistically warlike. The ending was worse than the Cold War ending. There was only one ending, which was bad because it was too cheesy, but they showed multiple different endings for each of the main characters in the campaign mode. The reason for multiple endings is that you play as four main characters in the game. This is why I chose the Cold War campaign over the Vanguard campaign.

The second game mode I want to talk about with Black Ops: Cold War and Vanguard is Multiplayer mode. This mode is a mode where you can play with other online people. I prefer Cold War multiplayer over Vanguard multiplayer. The game had better multiplayer maps, and I did well in them. The game is not too fast or too slow, it’s just the right speed. You can add your favorite faction, of which mine was the Warsaw Pact. All of the operators were born in the proper timeline of the Cold War from the 1930’s to the 1950’s. The weapons are more modern than the Vanguard’s weapon choice. They have better calling cards and emblems.

I will discuss Vanguards: Multiplayer. The game is way too fast for me. I still do well in it, but the game play is too fast. The weapons are not as great as in the Cold War. You can’t choose a certain faction. They don’t have the best calling cards and emblems. The game was popular, but it wasn’t good enough. To remedy this, Activision added Snoop Dogg, a well-known hip-hop/rap singer, as a multiplayer character. The problem with this is that they added a character who was not even born before or during World War II. I think Activision added him so Vanguard would be more popular. I think if Activision wanted Vanguard to be popular, they should add someone who is very famous and was born before World War II. However, for the other characters, most of them were either born in the 1910’s or the 1920’s, which is accurate enough to prove that they existed before World War II. The only thing the two games have in common is best play, which shows the best kills from the whole match. This is why I chose Cold War multiplayer over Vanguard multiplayer.

The third game mode I want to talk about with Black Ops Cold War and Vanguard is zombies’ mode. This mode is a mode where you can play with other online people, but the only difference is that everyone is in a team and, as a team, you and your teammates fight against the zombies. There’s also a mode where you can play by yourself. I prefer Cold War zombies over Vanguard zombies. The design for zombies in Cold War looks good. They look like normal military soldiers. The game also has better side tasks you can do to complete the match. The maps are better. The way you can get power ups is by drinking from aluminum cans. The weapons that are used in multiplayer and the campaign are perfect for zombies. One amazing thing the game added was an arcade mode in Zombie. This was an old-style arcade zombie game.

I will discuss Vanguard zombies. I don’t like how the zombies were designed in Vanguard. They looked more demonic than the zombies from the Cold War. The game had some side tasks too, but it wasn’t the same as Cold War. The maps are not the best. The way you can get power ups is by drinking from fountains. I think that the game should have used glass bottles because it makes more sense than fountains. If the game’s era was before the 20th century, then it would make sense, because there were no aluminum cans or glass bottles back then. The weapons that are used in multiplayer and campaign mode are decent for killing zombies but not as good as Cold War’s gun selection choices. Arcade mode doesn’t exist in Vanguard, but that is obvious because Vanguard is from the 1940’s. I think Activision should not have released Vanguard with zombies. It should be left alone with the campaign and multiplayer. This is why I choose Cold War zombies over Vanguard zombies.

Finally, I’ve explained why I prefer Cold War over Vanguard. The campaign mode in Vanguard needed better characters and a good ending/nothing cheesy. The multiplayer mode needs to slow down as the characters run into battle, choose any faction you want to be in, make better calling cards/emblems, and consider adding characters in the proper timeline. The zombies’ mode needs to make the zombies less scary, and add similar tasks that were in Cold War. Another idea for this is to never release zombies in a World War II game. I would recommend getting Cold War, but if anyone likes World War II games, either get Vanguard or Call of Duty World War II, which is a separate game from Vanguard. This is my argument and my opinion of what I think about the two games.

12th Grade English Uncategorized

12th Grade English essay 18

The Story of my dog Scarlette                                          

It was early January; I woke up early on a normal school day. It was sunny but freezing cold outside. My dad has been looking for a dog for months because we missed our old dog, Isis, who was a Belgian Malinois. Isis died in 2014 due to a stroke from the heat. Since a few years ago, when that happened, we had enough money to buy a new dog. We were getting another Belgian Malinois to replace Isis. I did my schoolwork, and while I was at school, my dad found a good price on buying a dog. “Mia, later today we will buy a new dog,” said Dad. “Really? I can’t wait. I’m excited, “said Mia. We made an appointment to pick out a dog for us. I was super happy and excited because of this. After school, I played some video games and chilled out to some music until we had to go. “Mia, it’s time to go,” said Dad. I nodded and got into the car. We left home and traveled south.

We bought the stuff we needed for our new dog. We bought a place, toys, food, and other necessities for the dog. On the way down, we ate at Burger King, because it was dinner time as we traveled. After we ate, we went to see the dogs. As we went outside, it was very cold, but I felt warm as I saw the dogs. All of them were Belgian Malinois, and they all looked adorable. There were five of them. However, we had to only pick one dog. “Pick a dog,” said Dad. I looked to see which dog I would choose. One dog came up to me, and I took a good look at her. She was the prettiest of all the dogs. Her fur was brown, white, and black; she smelled good and had an arrow on her tail. “I chose this dog,” said Mia. I picked her up, and we paid for our new dog. “Do you want to buy all the dogs?” said the seller. “No thanks, one is enough,” said Dad. We took her home, and she had a good car ride. On the first night, we tried to put her in a soft foldable place so she could sleep in there, but she rolled around in there. I couldn’t sleep. “Alright, you’re sleeping in my bed tonight,” said Mia. She was so beautiful as she slept in my bed. She was peaceful and quiet as she slept.

The next day, I took care of her and took her outside. It was sunny with a chilly breeze. She was fine until the afternoon, when I took her out. She went exploring without the leash. Then she went inside of our river bank, which had some stinky mud. The odor was so horrible. “Gross, Scarlette, why did you do that?!” said Mia. I had to carry her back to the house. My dad looked at me. “What happened out there?” asked Dad. “The dog went into the river bank and now she’s all muddy,” said Mia. “Give her a bath then,” said Dad. I gave her first bath, and she was clean. She laid in my bed and took a nice nap. My dad took photos of her while she slept. “Let’s think of a name for her,” said Dad. “I agree,” said Mia. We came up with a name after that incident, and her name was Scarlette.

As Scarlette grew up a little more, she was 3 months old. She was almost potty trained. Then she had to use the bathroom, and I forgot to take her out. Scarlette went on the carpet and squatted down to pee. “Mia, get the dog off the carpet,” said Dad. I nodded. I carried her off the carpet and as I did, she didn’t stop peeing. Her pee looked like a fire engine hose trying to stop a fire. Then she finished her peeing. “I didn’t say carry her now, I meant to say carry her after she finished peeing on the carpet,” said Dad. “Oh, I see. Well, time to clean up the pee then,” said Mia. I had to clean up the pee with paper towels and pet urine remover. I also used some bleach. After I cleaned up, my dad and I started laughing about this incident.

I remember a time when Scarlette was one-year-old. When me and my dad took Scarlette outside, it was a bright early morning. The sun was out and it was warm. We bought her a frisbee so she can play around outside. The grass was wet outside because it rained at night. “Throw it,” said Dad. “Ok,” said Mia. We kept playing around with the frisbee and got super close to the river bank. Then when I threw the frisbee, it went near the river bank. Scarlette ran to get it, but as she did that she slipped and fell into the river bank. “Oops,” said Mia. She got back up and crawled out of there. She was wet and muddy. “After school, give Scarlette a bath, and next time let’s not play with the frisbee near the river bank,” said Dad. I nodded and went to my school. Then I gave her a nice bath, and she was clean.

When Scarlette was two years old, I would take her on bike rides throughout my front and back yard. It was fun when she chased me because she would bite my tires and get exercise. The day was hot and humid. One day, when I gave her a bike ride, we had chickens. We used to have a rooster that did not live with the other chickens because the rooster attacked one of the hens. The rooster was named Everest. I had to clean off my bike because I ran over some dog poop. As I took my bike near to the hoses, I washed off my bike. After I did that, I was looking for Scarlette. “Scarlette? “Scarlette?” said Mia. Then I saw her by the rooster, stalking it, and she sprung into the air and tried to capture it. She failed because Everest escaped her attack. He bawked and ran as he lost a few feathers. I walked up to my dog. “Scarlette! You ‘bird stalker’! “You are too funny,” said Mia. Scarlette looked at me as she panted and went towards me so that I could pet her. She will always be my family and best friend.

12th Grade English Uncategorized

12th Grade English essay 17

The Call of the Wild: Critical book review.

 The book I will be criticizing is titled The Call of the Wild by Jack London. It’s about a dog named Buck. He was kidnapped and transported from the warm weather of California to the cold weather of Canada. He learns lessons from the wild, but as he learns, his body is weak from torture. One owner, named John Thornton, takes great care of him, knowing that Buck is a good dog. In return, Buck saves his master several times. As he wanders in the wild, he returns home to see that his master is dead because of the Native Americans. Then he follows the wild wolves into the wild. The three things that are displayed in the book are: life lessons, drama, and bravery.

I like how the book teaches life lessons from the wild. One example is Buck obeying the master. He tried to attack his kidnappers, but they hit him many times with a club. He learns to obey and not attack them. If they don’t have clubs, then he will attack them. Another example is learning to attack other dogs for self-defense because some dogs attacked him. When the dogs tried to attack him again, he had to kill them because it was his only way of surviving in the wild. A third example is eating what you can. Buck had to defend his food from the other dogs because there wasn’t any sharing. It’s eat or be eaten. Last, he had to adapt to the cold weather because the cruel owners did not let him sleep in a warm tent. He had to sleep in the cold snow.

I dislike how the book adds drama and sadness. Remember when I explained how Buck had to obey his masters if clubs hit him? The way I read it was horrible and cruel. It made me sad to read that. Another example has to do with when he was at Thornton’s house and his current owner, Hal, beat Buck up for not walking. The reason he was not walking was that he was weak and fed very little. Thornton did a good thing by saving Buck. He fought Hal, and Thornton won.

Despite the life lessons and drama, I liked how Buck displayed bravery. At first, at the beginning of the book, he was scared because someone had kidnapped him. He was around other dogs, so he learned his lessons in life, and he developed courage. Even if he was weak, he still had a strong heart and didn’t give up easily. When he was with Thornton, he was brave enough to save him multiple times. He saved Thornton when he got into a fight with someone at a bar and saved him when he fell into a moving river. Buck is still a good dog despite his change in personality and lifestyle. He was loyal to Thornton. One-day Buck’s wild instincts called him to the forest, and he stayed there for a couple of days. Then he returned and saw that his owner had died because a Native American tribe killed him. He was sad and attacked two natives. Buck still had bravery even when his owner died. He ran into the wild and lived among the wolves.

In conclusion, there were two things I liked and one thing I disliked. These are my opinions on what I think about the book. If Jack London was still alive today, I would ask him to edit the drama. At least, don’t add too much of it because it can make a person cry, especially if they are dog lovers. There are two hidden messages in this book: a dog is a man’s best friend and to follow your instincts. Overall, I think this is a great book. I can recommend it to anyone who likes nature, dogs, drama, or action.

12th Grade English Uncategorized

12th Grade English essay 16

Jurassic Park Book Report

The book I read for my report is called Jurassic Park by Michael Crichton. This book is about a park on an island that is home to dinosaurs thanks to scientific research. The guests go to the park to see it before it opens. However, a storm comes to the island, and a treacherous snake sabotages the power. Dinosaurs escape their fences, and the guests are in danger. The survivors must turn on the power and get off the island.

A long time ago, dinosaurs ruled the land. They were extinct because of an asteroid hitting Earth and wiping them out of existence. Their remains are hidden on land and sea. Many paleontologists explore the world to find fossils and DNA. John Hammond, an old man and investor, spent money on a private island and scientific research to create a park. He invited several people to come to the island. Dr. Wu, a scientist in Jurassic Park, is credited with creating dinosaurs. Alan Grant and Ellie Sattler were paleontologists. Ian Malcolm is a mathematician who uses Chaos Theory. He believed that the island would not be a success. Two children, Lex and Tim Murphy, are grandchildren of Hammond. Donald Gennaro, a person who works with Hammond, is worried about Hammond’s ideas. When the guests arrived on the island, they were given a tour of the park inside and out. During the tour, a storm is on the way to the island. Dennis Nedry, a computer nerd, pretends to be a faithful worker in Jurassic Park. He is offered money to steal dinosaur embryos and sabotages the power in order not to get caught. He ends up dying because he took a wrong turn and went into a Dilophosaurus fence. The dinosaur spit poison on him and ate him. When the power goes off, the tour cars stop working, and the fences turn off. The dinosaurs can leave their fences now.

A T-Rex escaped the electrical fence, and the tour cars were at that exhibit. Almost everyone survived the attack. A few of the guests stayed inside at the research center. The T-Rex attacked a car that Lex and Tim were in. After the attack, the kids stayed with Alan. Ian had serious injuries from the T-Rex. He was taken back to the research center by Ellie. Not only were T-Rexes a major source of concern, but so were Velociraptors. Many ambushes with dinosaurs happened, but the guests still survived. Since the power is out, the people in the research center have to turn on the power. Ellie was the first person to turn on the power. Alan, Ellie, Lex, and Tim are together and survived the Velociraptors’ ambush at the Visitor Center. Ian Malcolm was assumed to be dead, but is not. John Hammond died by tripping over a ravine and being eaten by small dinosaurs called Compys. The survivors are found and taken off the island. This is the end of the book.

The lesson of this book is that evolutionary standards should be left alone. Dinosaurs may have interesting discoveries with fossils and features, but they are dangerous creatures that can kill people. I enjoyed the book because of the history of the dinosaurs and the action of the characters. I think that the book is perfect the way it is and I would recommend it to anyone who loves action, fiction, dinosaurs, or all of the above.

12th Grade English Uncategorized

12th Grade English Essay 15

Tyrannosaurus Rex vs. Velociraptor. Which dinosaur is the deadliest?

The Tyrannosaurus Rex, or T-Rex, was a dinosaur that lived in the Cretaceous period between 67 and 65 million years ago. These dinosaurs were big. They were 40 ft. long and 15–20 ft. tall. This dinosaur ate meat. They have teeth that are 12 inches long. T-Rexes had excellent hearing, sight, and smell. These dinosaurs could run at 10–25 mph to catch its prey. The T-Rex also had small arms, but that didn’t stop him from getting his food. The dinosaur walked on two feet. T-Rexes fight each other and hunt together. T-Rexes would live in humid and tropical areas. They would stay in these regions because of water and prey. The T-Rex was a feathered dinosaur. Their fossils are found in Western North America.

The Velociraptor was a dinosaur that lived in the Cretaceous period between 75 and 70 million years ago. The Velociraptor is 7 ft. long and 6 ft. tall. These dinosaurs were small. They had bigger arms, sharp claws, and walked on two feet. They live in a desert area. Velociraptor’s teeth were 9 inches long. This dinosaur ate meat and hunted in packs. These dinosaurs hunted mostly during the night and were good at ambushes. Velociraptor’s had excellent hearing, smell, and sight. They ran up to 40 mph to catch their prey. The Velociraptor was also a feathered dinosaur. Their fossils are found in China and Mongolia.

What do both dinosaurs have in common? They lived during the Cretaceous period, had good senses, walked on two feet, evolved into birds and were carnivores. What are the differences? T-Rexes are bigger than Velociraptor’s by weight, length, and tooth size. Velociraptor’s ran faster than T-Rexes. Velociraptor’s lived in a desert environment and T-Rexes lived in a humid and tropical environment. Both fossils are found in different locations. Which dinosaur is the deadliest? My answer would be both dinosaurs are deadly. However, I will choose one dinosaur, and that would be the T-Rex. If you encountered a T-Rex, it would kill you and devour you in one bite. The T-Rex’s bite is full of force, and the bite would be very painful. The Velociraptor would devour you too, but not in one bite. It also has a strong bite force and would be painful, especially when a group of Velociraptors joins the feast. Another reason is the T-Rexes’ foot size. If a T-Rex steps on you, then you will be crushed. This does not apply to a Velociraptor because it would leave wounds on your back or chest. Therefore, T-Rexes are deadlier than Velociraptor’s.

Constitutional Law Uncategorized

Constitutional Law: Part 15

Restoring the Lost Constitution: Review. First here is a quote from Sanford Levinson:

“Almost all constitutional analysts, as a matter of brute fact, seem committed to a de facto theory of “happy endings”, whereby one’s skills as a rhetorical manipulator… are devoted to achieving satisfying results.”

–Sanford Levinson (2002).


  From the beginning of our country to today, there have been many changes. These changes include the ratification of new states, different wars, inventions, different people immigrating, and new laws. While the country’s population increased, new laws, Amendments, and doctrines were added. The Justices added different doctrines. It is unnecessary to add these doctrines for two reasons: 1. they were not written in the Constitution and 2. the Justices of the Supreme Court are abandoning the original meaning of the Constitution. This can lead to people deviating from the original words of the Constitution. The Nonoriginalists will follow the Justices, interpretation of the Constitution. The Originalists will listen to the original meaning of the Constitution.

The Necessary and Proper clause, the Privileges and Immunities clause, the Commerce Clause, and the Takings Clause are in the Constitution. Most justices, will interpret the clauses in their own ways. Footnote four of Carolene Products, any acts ratified by Congress, and the three different scrutinies are perfect examples of constitutional deviation. Congress passed the RFRA, or Religious Freedom Restoration Act, and Bill Clinton signed it into law in 1993. What is wrong with this act? We already have an Amendment that provides freedom of religion. This would be the First Amendment: Congress shall make no law respecting the establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances. Therefore, RFRA is unconstitutional and should be repealed. This act has been used in several Supreme Court cases.

The Ten Amendments that were added to the Constitution were good. After the First Ten Amendments, the Amendments started to deviate from the people’s will and favor the elites. There are some Amendments that were intended for the general public: The Thirteenth (slavery), and the Fourteenth (equal protection). The Fifteenth (voting), and the Nineteenth Amendment (women). There are some Amendments that were not intended for the general public: The Sixteenth (taxing), the Seventeenth (Senators), and the Twentieth (President). The Amendments should be for the people and not for the elites. There are only a few options we have left: to follow what the Constitution provides for the people, to follow what God says, or to rebel against our Government.

Constitutional Law Uncategorized

Constitutional Law: Part 14

Showing Necessity: Judicial doctrines and application to cases. First here is a quote from Justice John Paul Stevens:

“Freedom is a blessing. Regulation is sometimes necessary, but is always a burden. A decision not to regulate the way in which an owner chooses to enjoy the benefits of an improvement to his own property is adequately justified by a presumption in favor of freedom.”

–Justice John Paul Stevens (1993).

The court should determine whether the purpose of a particular statute falls within the enumerated powers of the federal government or the police power of the state. The Presumption of Liberty places the burden of establishing the propriety of laws on the government. The government will meet its burden by showing that any restrictions on individuals are prohibitions on wrongful conduct or proper regulations of rightful activity. Judiciary review, requiring the government to show that a law is consistent with a properly circumscribed conception of propriety, would go to establish these commands. Constitutional legitimacy also requires a law of necessity. The courts often use statutes that violate express restrictions on legislative power, like the Equal Protection Clause of the fourteenth amendment or the Free Speech Clause of the first amendment.

Here is an example of the first amendment. When a law is used to accomplish a proper purpose by restricting the liberties of the people, the presumption of liberty imposes a burden on those defending the necessity of these restrictions to show two things: To begin, the government must show that there is a sufficient fit between the liberty-restraining means it chose and the goals it was attempting to achieve. Second, the government must show that there were no less restrictive alternatives to the liberty-restraining measures that were chosen.

City of Cleburne v. Cleburne Living Center (1984). This case involved the operator of a home for mentally retarded people. The city wanted the operator to have a special permit under the zoning laws that operators of other group homes were not required to get. The permit for the construction was denied. There were four reasons the city would not let them build the home group. First, the city had concerns about the reactions of the neighbors living close by. Second, the city was concerned that this construction plan was near a school and that the students might be either jeopardized or ridiculed by the people living in the home. Third, the city claimed that the home was in a flood zone. Fourth, the city was concerned about the size of the home and the number of people who lived there. The court rejected the first two concerns and the flood concern. If the operator wants to have a home group for these people, then why not let them? Even though it’s a ridiculous idea, just let the people build the place for the mentally retarded.

To show that a restriction on liberty is really necessary, it’s not enough for the government to show it is a means to accomplish a constitutionally proper purpose. The government should also have to show that it could not achieve its purpose by other means that do not so restrict the liberties of the people or by means that are less restrictive of such liberties. Courts are prepared to require this when a fundamental right, such as the right to freedom of speech, is being infringed upon. Requiring that the government choose the less restrictive alternative is closely related to the requirement that any restriction be narrowly tailored to achieve the proper purpose or that it will not be overbroad.

There are three levels of scrutiny that can be used in Supreme Court cases: strict, intermediate, and rational basis scrutiny. Strict scrutiny means that a law will be upheld if it is necessary to achieve an interesting government purpose. Intermediate scrutiny means that a law must be substantially related to an important governmental purpose. Rational basis scrutiny means that the courts accept any measure that is reasonably related to accomplishing any legitimate interest. There shouldn’t be any type of scrutiny because it is not written in the constitution. The courts continue to use this in their cases. Sometimes the cases can be easy, controversial, or hard. It usually depends on what the case is about and what doctrines or applications are being used. The courts make up different doctrines or applications. They use these in their cases because they don’t follow the constitution. In today’s generation, we have too many powers, not just in the judiciary branch, but in all the branches. This includes the government. Will our constitution matter anymore since many people don’t follow it? It is possible to have people follow it, but really, no one will care.

Constitutional Law Uncategorized

Constitutional Law: Part 13

The Proper Scope of State Power: Construing the “Police Power”. First here is a quote from Christopher Tiedeman:

“The conservation of private rights is attained by the imposition of a wholesome restraint upon their exercise, such a restraint as will prevent the infliction of injury upon others in the enjoyment of them…. The power of the government to impose this restraint is called Police Power.”

–Christopher Tiedeman (1886).

A written constitution is used to set certain rights and provisions so different factions does not change them. Putting in the rights requires the original meaning of the provisions to be maintained until the act of writing them is amended. If the original meaning creates a lawmaking process that is good enough to produce laws that are binding in conscience, then the original scheme is legitimate. The 10th amendment: “The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it, are reserved to the states, respectively, or to the people.” This means if there is something that is added or not delegated to our country, it should be up to the states or the people to get rid of something that may destroy our country. However, we do not have this right anymore.

What is the original meaning of “police”? In our generation, many people believe in the police as officers to pull over people, arrest people, and more. Other factions do that nowadays, too. However, for this essay, I will explain Police Power, not the Police faction. That the state possessed the power of police existed at the time of the founding of our country. The delegates used the phrase “internal police” only seven times to refer to the power of state governments. State police power arose when the convention considered granting general powers to the national government but wanted to ensure that the national legislature did not interfere with the government of the individual states in any matters of internal police in which the general welfare of the United States was not concerned.

The absence of an articulated theory of police power reflected the lack of any need for such a theory so long as federal courts had little responsibility for protecting the rights of citizens from being violated by their state governments. The Lockean Theory of Police Power involves the name of John Locke. However, this is not just about Locke himself. According to Thomas A. Cooley, “the police of a state, in a broad sense, embraces its system of internal regulation, by which it is sought not only to preserve public order and to prevent offenses against the state, but also to establish for the intercourse of citizen with citizen those rules of good manners and good neighborhood calculated to prevent a conflict of rights, and to insure each the uninterrupted enjoyment of their own, so far as is reasonable.” Cooley’s conception of police power descended from the same Lockean political theory on which the rest of the Constitution was based.

John Locke wrote, “Those who are united into one body and have a common established law and judicature to appeal to, with authority to decide controversies between them and punish offenders, are in civil society one with another; but those who have no such common appeal, I mean on Earth, are still in the state of nature, each being, where there is no other, judge for himself and executioner, as I have before shown, the perfect state of nature.” We should not have police power unless it is really necessary. The 10th amendment should stay in the constitution and if anything interferes with our liberty or freedom, we should take whatever it is down.

Constitutional Law Uncategorized

Constitutional Law: Part 12

The Proper Scope of Federal Power: The meaning of the Commerce Clause. First here is a quote from the Pennsylvania Gazette:

“Agriculture, manufacturers, and commerce are acknowledged to be the three great sources of wealth in any state. By the first we are to understand not only tillage, but whatever regards the improvement of the earth; as the breeding of cattle, the raising of trees, plants and all vegetables that may contribute to the real use of man; the opening and working of mines, whether of metals, stones, or mineral drugs; by the second, all the arts, manual, or mechanic; by the third, the whole extent of navigation with foreign countries.”

–Pennsylvania Gazette (January 13, 1790)

The previous clauses I have written about, the necessary and proper clauses, command that all laws passed by Congress shall be proper. A proper exercise of power is one that is within the jurisdiction of the branch or department in question and that does not violate the rights retained by the people. In Article 1, the Constitution has a list of places where Congress can exercise its powers. The Commerce Clause phrase may be limited to trade or exchange of goods, which would exclude agriculture, manufacturing, and other methods of production. It may also be referred to as any gainful activity.

Regulate might be limited to making regular, which would subject a particular type of commerce to a rule and would exclude any prohibition on trade as an end or it might be interpreted expansively to mean to govern, which includes prohibitions and pure regulations. Congress has the power to regulate relations with foreign nations, among the several states, and with the Indian tribes. The Commerce Clause has been used since the 19th century, during the Progressive Era, and continues to be used today. It started in the Marshall Court. It was used in a famous case, Gibbons v. Ogden (1824). It was a case involving a monopoly and steamboat businesses. The Progressive Era court used the Commerce Clause and has not changed the meaning. Another example of a case using the Commerce Clause is the United States v. E.C. Knight (1895). This involved the manufacture of sugar and monopoly.

What does among the several states mean? It could mean that Congress can regulate trade throughout the current states that were created. Chief Justice Marshall says that among the states, this means over one state. The courts have accepted this. Governing between states or between individuals in one state and another. It does not just regulate commerce that concerns over one state or commerce between citizens of the same state that somehow concerns another state. It also gives Congress the authority to regulate foreign nations and Indian tribes. Marshall’s examination of the Commerce Clause has permitted the expansion of the power to regulate commerce beyond that which actually crosses state lines. “Among the several states: provide that no warrant for this extension of power.

To regulate means to adjust by rule or method, to direct. It means making a regular Regulating can sometimes include prohibiting. To prohibit means to forbid, to interdict by authority, to debar, to hinder. A power to specify the manner in which trade is to be conducted includes a power to prohibit fraud in the conduct of trade between states. Congress has the power to not only regulate but also prohibit. They have the police power to stop wrongful conduct regarding commerce between states. Congress may protect the rights of people engaged in commerce among the states or the rights of third parties that are violated by such commerce.